Quang Ninh Province, Northern Vietnam
Capital: Ha Long City
Area: 6,099 km² (2,355 sq mi)
Population: About 1.4 million
Density: 180/km² (470/sq mi)
Demographics: Kinh, Tày, Dao, Sán Chay, Sán Dìu, Hoa
Calling code: 33
Quang Ninh is a large province along the north-eastern coast of Vietnam. The province is home to Ha Long Bay, a World Heritage Site. Provincial capital is Ha Long. Nearly 80 per cent of the province is mountainous with abundant land, forest water and mineral resources. Nearly 90 per cent of coal output in the country is from this province. Ha Long Bay has 1,969 islands, out of which 989 have names. The province covers an area of 6,099 square kilometres and as of 2008 it had a population of 1,109,600 people.
The name of Quang Ninh province is the compound name of two provinces. Quang Yen and Hai Ninh.
Quang Ninh province is a land of rich history. In Ha Long Bay area has archaeological remains of prehistoric people from 3000 – 1500 BC. Characterized this period as Culture Halong. With many archaeological shells used as jewelry and money exchange. Ancient animal bones and human bones. When first formed the State of Vietnam. This land of Quang Ninh is one of the 15 tribes of Van Lang State
Area Quang Ninh current time feudal called:
Ngô Dynasty called Luc Chau.
Ly Dynasty called Dong Hai
Tran Dynasty called Hai Dong.
Later Lê Dynasty called An Bang.
Nguyen Dynasty called Quang Yen.
The historic sites of Quang Ninh Province:
– Bach Dang River. Today the territory of Quang Yen town, the region adjacent to the city of Hai Phong.
– Commercial Van Don port. With the naval war against the Mongol Empire. This sector Quan Lang and Minh Chau, Van Don district.
– The tomb of Tran Dynasty. The capital is home to the Tran dynasty ancestors before migrating down the Thai Binh, Thien Truong. Today the territory of Dong Trieu District.
– Yen Tu Mountain. The land of Trúc Lâm Zen. Today the territory of Uong Bi city.
From the French colonial period to the present
After the invasion of occupied Tonkin, in 1899 the French cup part Quang Yen established Hai Ninh province. Seeing coal mineral resources. French colonialists increase in mining zones Hongay, Mao Khe, Vang Danh, Cam Pha Town, Ha Tu etc. Established the Northern Coal Company of France (SFCT) exclusive exploitation and consumption of coal, power scavenged resources and exploitation of colonies. Along with the coal industry, Quang Ninh is one of the Vietnamese working class formed the earliest.
The general strike of more than 30,000 miners November 12, 1936 demanding higher wages reduce the hours of glorious victory has become one of the most iconic historical events of the Vietnamese revolutionary movement during play for civil rights democracy and national independence. Later became the traditional date of the mines: Date indomitable mines.
After the August Revolution in 1945, Vietnam’s independence, the government at the hands of the people. 1963 platform is the Hong Quang and provinces Hai Ninh Government Democratic Republic of Vietnam established the province Quang Ninh. According to the setting of Ho Chi Minh, the name of the province is the name of two transplant Quang Yen and Hai Ninh old. The area of the province of Quang Ninh is 8239.243 km².
The province has the shape of an oblique rectangle inclined in a northeast-to-southwest direction. To the west, the province borders an extended forest and mountain region. To the east, it is adjacent to the Gulf of Bac Bo. It features a meandering coastline, numerous estuaries and tidal flats and more than 2,000 large and small islands. Exactly 1,030 of these have been named. Quang Ninh’s coordinates are longitude 106º25′ to 108º25′ east and latitude 20º40′ to 21º40′ north. Its width from east to west is 195 km (at the widest part).
The total length from north to south of the province is 102 km. The northernmost point is in mountain range at Mo Toòng village (Hoành Mô Commune, Bình Liêu District). The southernmost point is in Ha Mai Island (Ngoc Vung Commune, Vân Ðon District). The westernmost point is in Vàng Chua River (Bình Duơng and Nguyen Hue communes, Ðông Trieu District). The easternmost point is inland at Got Cape, northeast of Trà Co Commune, Móng Cái Town.
Quang Ninh has a common international border with the People’s Republic of China. Inland, north of province (Bình Liêu, Hai Hà districts and Móng Cái borders Dongxing City and Fangcheng County in Guangxi Province, PRC with the borderline of 170 km. To the east, it adjuncts to Bac Bo Gulf. The province also borders Lang Sơn, Bac Giang and Hai Duơng provinces to the west, and the city of Hai Phòng to the south. The coastal line is 250 km. The total area of Quang Ninh is 8,239.243 km², of which 5,938 km² is mainland. The area of islands, bays and sea is a tremendous 2,448.853 km². The total area of the islands is 619.913 km².
Quang Ninh is a mountainous and coastal province, with more than 80 per cent of its area being made up of mountains and hills. The 2,000 some islands are also considered mountains. The mountainous zone can be divided into two parts: the eastern mountainous region extending from Tiên Yên through Bình Liêu, Hai Hà, Ðam Hà and Móng Cái; and the western zone ranging from Tiên Yên through Ba Che and Hoành Bo, north of Uông Bí Town. The former is a continuation of the Thâp Van Ðai Son range in China. There are two main chains: Quang Nam Châu 1,507 m and Cao Xiêm 1,330 m. The western zone features smooth and curved mountains called Ðông Trieu with Yên Tu Mount 1,068 m in Uông Bí region and Am Váp Mount 1,094 m in Hoành Bo District.
The midland and coastal plains include a low range of hills weathered by both wind and water; forming fields and river basins. They include the zones of Ðông Triêu, Uông Bí, northern Yên Hung, southern Tiên Yên, Hai Hà and some of Móng Cái. In the estuaries, alluvial soil is deposited, creating low tidal flats. This can be found in the areas of southern Uông Bí, southern Yên Hung (Hà Nam Island), eastern Yên Hung, Ðông Rui (Tiên Yên), southern Ðam Hà and Mong Cai, southeastern Hai Hà. The midlands and plains of the coastline are extremely favourable for agriculture and transport. It has become a densely populated area of the province.
The sea and island zone of Quang Ninh has a unique terrain. There are more than 2,000 islands, making up two thirds of the country’s islands. They extend along the coast for more than 250 km and divide into numerous layers. The largest islands are Cái Bau and Ban Sen, while the smallest are just like rocks in a garden. Vân Ðon and Cô Tô are island districts. There are thousands of islands on Ha Long Bay and Bái Tu Long Bay, many of which contain caves. Besides areas of alluvial deposits, there are also white sand zones which have built up from tidal action. Some places have formed white sand mines producing materials for the glass industry (Van Hai), or have developed into tourism spots (Trà Co, Quan Lan, Minh Châu, Ngoc Vung).
The sea bottom terrain of Quang Ninh isn’t smooth, and has an average depth of 20 m. There are the remnants of ancient streams and underwater rocky banks. The streams from the mainland connect to deep drains along the sea-floor; creating a series of waterways, canals and harbours along the coast.
Quang Ninh’s climate is symbolic of the climate of North Vietnam; featuring all four seasons. In summer, it is hot, humid and rainy, while monsoons flourish. The average annual temperature recorded is 22.9°C. In winter, it is cold (between 1 to 3°C), dry, and sees little rainfall (between 150 mm and 400 mm). The average humidity is 82 percent. Annual average rainfall, influenced by north-eastern monsoons, varies between 1,700 mm and 2,400 mm (maximum recorded is 2751 mm), with rainfall concentrated in the summer months for 90 to 170 days, particularly in July and August.
In comparison to other provinces in the north, Quang Ninh has been more under the influences of north-eastern monsoon. The wind blows strongly and the temperature drops to between 1 and. During the north-east monsoon, high mountainous regions such as Bình Liêu and Hai Hà, Ðam Hà experiences temperatures below 0°C. Storms have a large influence on the province, mainly in June, July and August. The intensity can be extremely strong, especially in island and coastal regions.
Because of the terrain differences, the climates of sub-regions differ. The border area of the Móng Cái District is colder and rainy, with an average temperature of around 22°C and rainfall reaching 2,751 mm. In the Yên Hung District, the most southern area, the average temperature is 24°C and gets an average rainfall of 1,700 mm. The high mountainous region of Hoành Bo, and Ba Che districts, has 20 days of frost a year, and is subject to little rainfall. In the Bình Liêu District there is heavy rain (2,400 mm) and winter lasts for six months. The offshore island region is not the wettest area, with only 1,700 to 1,800 mm of rainfall per year, but winter is often accompanied by thick mists.
In Quang Ninh province, there are numerous rivers and springs, but most are short and small, and feature currents that differ between seasons. In winter, most rivers run dry, but in summer, waterfalls pick up fast currents. The water current reaches 1.45 m3/s in dry season, but up to 1,500 m3/s in the rainy season. Quang Ninh’s sea borders upon the Gulf of Bac Bo. It is large and protected by the ranks of islands, so the wind is quieter and the water smoother. The gulf’s current runs from north to south. It is Vietnam’s coldest sea, with the temperature sometimes dipping below 13°C. The average tide level recorded is 2.5 m.
Water resources in Quang Ninh province are abundant and distinct. The largest rivers are: the Ka Long (the natural national border between China and Vietnam), Hà Côi, Ðam Hà, Tiên Yên, Pho Cu, Ba Che, Dien Vong, Troi, Míp, Uông, Ðam and Cam rivers. The provincial border is the Kinh Thay River which joins the Ðá Bach River and runs into Bach Ðằng. The total static capacity is estimated at 175.106 m3 of water. Out of the 72 lakes and dams, there are 28 large lakes with a total of capacity of 195.53 million m3 of water. The largest is Yên Lập Lake, which blocks the Míp Estuary. Its water volume is 1.18 million m3. Other lakes include: Khuat Ðong, Trúc Bai Son, Khe Táu, Ðoan Tinh, Khe Uơn, Khe Chenh, Yên Trung, Ben Châu, Trai Loc, Roc Ca and An Biên.
Underground running water is also abundant, and can even be found on some of the larger islands. According to prospective data, 13 urban and industrial areas make use of 64,388 m3 water/day. In the province there are natural bottle water points in Quang Hanh (Cam Pha), Khe Lac (Tiên Yên) and Ðong Long (Bình Liêu). Mineral water is mainly available in the village of Quang Hanh. Presently, there are 15 exploration holes, and according to preliminary results, capacity could be 1,004 m3/day. Quang Hanh mineral water is clear and colourless, with mineral content varying from 3.5 to 5.05 g/L.
Quang Ninh province has rich natural mineral resources of coal, limestone, clay, kaolin, white sand, granite and so forth. Large reserves of anthracite coal account for 90 per cent of coal output of Vietnam. Limestone reserves are estimated at 3.1 billion tonnes which would be the basic input for cement manufacture. Other mineral resources phosphoric, titan, antimony, quartz and oil have been found which could auger more industrial projects in the Province. Clay and glassy sand, important material inputs in the building industry for manufacture of tiles, bricks fired-bricks, bricks, ceramics, are in abundance.
Quang Ninh province has four city municipalities (thành pho) (Ha Long, Móng Cái, Cam Pha and Uông Bí), one municipal town (thi xa) (Quang Yên), and nine rural districts (huyen): Ba Che District, Bình Liêu District, Cô Tô District, Đam Hà District, Đông Trieu District, Hai Hà District, Hoành Bo District, Tiên Yên District and Vân Đon District. As of 2011, These are divided into 113 communes (xa), 61 wards (phuong) and 10 urban townships (thi tran).
Although economy of the region is agriculture based, other sectors of industries and tourism are also getting priority attention. Being located in the northern economic triangle (Hanoi – Hai Phong – Quang Ninh), the province has abundant resources and has immense potential to develop the economy in every sector. The People’s Committee of Quang Ninh province in 2007 approved proposals for development plans up to 2020.
Industrial development is taking place at a rapid pace. Mineral extraction industries are being developed. Special economic zones are being created and the plans envisage making the province a modern industrial province by 2015. The two economic development zones under development are the Mong Cai Border Gate Economic Zone and the Van Don Economic Zone. Tourism is also a sector of economic development, which has priority.
Some of the economic indicators in agriculture, industries and other sectors are the following. There are only 1,440 farms as against the national number of 120,699.
The Output value of agriculture produce at constant 1994 prices in the province was 952.5 billion đongs against the national value of 156,681.9 billion dongs.
The province produced 227,700 tonnes of cereals as against the national production of 43.68 million tonnes.
The per capita production of cereals in the district was 205.2 kg as against the national figure of 501.8 kg. in 2008.
In 2007, the industrial output of Quang Ninh province was a meagre 37,987.5 billion dongs against the national output of 1.47 million billion dongs.
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