Hung Yen province, Northern Vietnam
Region: Red River Delta
Capital: Hung Yên
Area: 923.1 km² (356.4 sq mi)
Population: About 1.2 million
Density: 1,200/km² (3,100/sq mi)
Demographics: Vietnamese, Tày, Nùng, Hoa
Calling code: 321
Hung Yên is a province in the Red River Delta of Northern Vietnam.
The province comprises one city (Hung Yên) and nine districts:
– Ân Thi
– Khoái Châu
– Kim Đong
– My Hào
– Phu Cu
– Tiên Lu
– Văn Giang
– Văn Lâm
– Yên My
The area of the province of Hung Yên has been a place people live for a very long time.
During the legendary Hung Kings period, Hung Yen belonged to Giao Chi area, Du Chien district. Under the Ngô Dynasty, the name was Dang Chau. It then changed Thai Binh phu (phu is an administrative unit) under the Early Lê Dynasty, Dang Chau and Khoai Chau phu under the Lý Dynasty and Long Hung lo (lo is an administrative unit) and Khoai lo under the Tran Dynasty. Under the Later Lê Dynasty, Hung Yen belonged to Son Nam and then broke into Son Nam Thuong lo and Son Nam Ha lo.
The Nguyen Dynasty implemented administrative reforms in 1831 to dismantle the tran administrative units and establish provinces. Five districts of Dong Yen, Kim Dong, Thien Thi, Phu Cu and Tien Lu were separated from Khoai Chau phu of Son Nam Thuong tran and three districts of Than Khe, Duyen Ha and Hung Nhan were separated from Tien Hung phu of Nam Đinh tran of lower Son Nam town to establish Hung Yen province. The initial center of the province was located in An Vu and Luong Dien communes and then moved to Nhi Tan of Xich Dang commune (now Hung Yen city).
This area has favourable transport conditions with communes and markets lying side by side, enabling trading activities to be busier and busier. The Chronicle of Hung yen province stated: “The streets are very busy and bustle, crowded with vehicles; the old images of Pho Hien in Son Nam can been seen now in this land”.
The name Hung Yen officially appeared in the directory of the country in 1831. For that reason, prior to the French occupation of Vietnam, Hung Yen was a province located on both sides of the Luoc River. Since its establishment, the province’s territory has changed many times.
On March 27, 1833, French troops led by Captain Henri Rivière moved along the Red River from Hanoi and defeated Nam Dinh citadel. He then demanded Sub lieutenant Edgard de Trentinian to lead a unit of troops to attack Hung Yen citadel. After occupying Hung Yen, they made many efforts to strengthen their puppet government and establish various troop stations on one hand while speeding up the measuring and mapping work for deep involvement into communes and hamlets. However, they met many difficulties, confronting resistance by the Bai Say Revolt.
In 1890, the French set up the Bai Say area consisting of Yen My, Yen Hao, Van Lam and Cam Luong districts for the purpose of easier suppression of revolts. After the failure of the Bai Say rebellion, they merged Van Lam, Yen My and Yen Hao districts into Hung Yen province and returned Cam Luong district (now Cam Giàng) to Hai Duong Province.
Also in 1890, the French split Than Khe district from Tien Hung phu of Hung Yen province and Thai Binh phu and Kien Xuong phu from Nam Dinh province and set up a new province called Thái Bình. Afterwards, they went on to cut Hung Nhan and Duyen Ha districts and transferred Tien Lu district (formerly belonging to Tien Hung area) to merge into Khoai Chau phu. Ever since, the Luoc River has served as the natural border between Hung Yen and Thai Binh. This period lasted from French colonization to the August Revolution in 1945.
Present Hung Yen
When the anti-French resistance war was over and peace returned in the north, district-level administrative units remained the same, except the changes in the administrative names of some wards and communes.
On January 26, 1968, the Standing Committee of the National Assembly approved a resolution on the unification of Hai Duong and Hung Yen into Hai Hung Province. After that, Van Giang and Yen My districts were unified into Van Yen district; Tien Lu and Phu Cu districts were unified into Phu Tien district; Van Lam and My Hao districts were unified into Van My; Kim Dong and An Thi districts were unified into Kim Thi district. Van Yen and Van My districts were unified into My Van; Khoai Chau district and a part of Van Giang district were unified into Chau Giang district.
On November 6, 1996, the National Assembly approved the division of Hai Hung into Hai Duong and Hung Yen. After that, the unified districts split as the former administrative units. Hung Yen now has ten district and town-level administrative units: Hung Yen city, districts of Van Lam, Van Giang, My Hao, Yen My, Khoai Chau, An Thi, Kim Dong, Tien Lu and Phu Cu with 161 communes, districts and towns.
Hung Yen is a province in the Red River Delta, in the Northern Focal Economic Zone and the Hanoi – Hai Phong – Quang Ninh Economic Triangle.
The eastern gateway to Hanoi, Hung Yen has 23 km of the 5A National Highway and over 20 km of the Hanoi-Haiphong railway route. In addition, the national highways 39A and 38, which extends the National Highway 5, passing by Hung Yen city, running to the National Highway 1A through Yen Lenh Bridge and to the National Highway 10 through Trieu Duong Bridge. This is an important transportation axis linking southwestern provinces in the Northern Delta (Ha Nam, Ninh Bình, Nam Đinh and Thanh Hóa) with Hai Duong, Haiphong and Quang Ninh provinces.
Hung Yen is close to Hai Phong and Cai Lan seaports and Noi Bai International Airport. It has borders with Hanoi and the provinces of Bac Ninh, Ha Tay, Ha Nam, Thai Binh and Hai Duong.
Like other provinces in the Red River Delta, Hung Yen also has the hot and damp tropical monsoon climate. Every year, there are two separate hot and cold seasons in the province. The sun shines on average 1,519 hours per year and the average number of sunny days is per month is 24. Average temperature is 23.2 °C in the summer and 16 °C in the winter.
The average rainfall is between 1,450 and 1,650 mm. In fact, the rainfall from May to October accounts up to 70% of the year’s total. Humidity in the air is 86%; the highest level of humidity is 92% while the lowest level is 79%.
Hung Yen has the features of a delta province: flat topography without hills and mountains. There are 61,037 hectares of agricultural land, of which 55,645ha (accounting 91% of the total) are for yearly cultivation; and the remaining for cultivation of perennial plants, fish farming, specialized cultivation and other purposes. The area of unused natural land is about 7,471 hectares, which are all available for agricultural production and development.
Hung Yen province has a plentiful fresh water source because it is in between by the Hong River and Luoc River. Its underground water source is also bountiful with a huge reserve. In the area along the 5A National Highway, from Nhu Quynh to Quan Goi, there lie mammoth underground water mines with a reserve of millions of cubic metres, which not only can supply water for industrial development and urban daily consumption but also can supply a big water volume for neighbouring localities.
Hung Yen’s brown coal source, which is a part of the brown basin in the Red River Delta and has a 30-billion-tonne reserve. No mining activity. However, this is a big potential to develop the mining industry, meeting the energy demand in the domestic market and export.
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