Hai Duong province, Northern Vietnam
Region: Red River Delta
Capital: Hai Dưong
Area: 1,648.4 km² (636.5 sq mi)
Population: About 1.8 million
Density: 1,000/km² (2,700/sq mi)
Demographics: Vietnamese, Hoa, Sán Dìu, Muong
Calling code: 3203
Website: vpubnd.haiduong.gov.vn & www.haiduong.gov.vn
Hai Duong is a province in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam. Its name derives from Sino-Vietnamese, meaning “ocean”, though, in fact, the province is landlocked. Nowadays, Hai Duong province is among the most industrialized and developed provinces in Vietnam.
Geography of Hai Duong
The province is located in the Red River Delta of northeastern Vietnam, about mid-distance from Hanoi to Hai Phong. Two famous pagodas, Con Son and Kiep Bac, are situated in this province. The province is known for its famous lychees and for the traditional sweet bánh đau xanh (mung bean paste).
Hai Duong is located in the centre of North Vietnam. The natural area of the province is 1,661.2 km², ranked 51st of the total area. Hai Duong province borders six provinces: Bac Ninh, Bac Giang, Quang Ninh in the north, Hung Yen in the west, Hai Phong in the East, Thai Binh in the south.
There are important roads, railways running through the province such as the Highways No. 5, No. 18, No. 183 and No. 37.
Hai Duong province has one city under province and 11 districts. Hai Duong city is the centre of the province and the others districts, Cam Giang, Binh Giang, Thanh Mien, Ninh Giang, Gia Loc, Tu Ky, Thanh Ha, Kim Thanh, Kinh Mon, Nam Sach and Chi Linh, surround it.
Hai Duong lies in the tropical monsoon climate with typical cold winter, potential heat and high humidity. Two types of wind mainly come from the South East and the North East. The Climate is divided into 4 distinct seasons. From early February to early April, the spray and rain after a period of transition from dry season to rainy season. The rainy season lasts from April to October.
The annual average rainfall is 1300 to 1700 mm.
The average temperature 23.3 °C.
Hours of sunshine in the year is 1524 hours.
Relative humidity averaged is 85 – 87%.
Over the last 20 years, Hai Duong province has been experiencing a big change in its demographics. During this period, the rate of fertility decreases dramatically from a high rate at 6.7% to 2.14% in 2000-2008, the same pattern is found with the rate of mortality. This is a result of the success of the family planning program and the improvement of the health care system of Hai Duong province as well as the innovations in medicine. In addition, life expectancy also increases over time. These changes in demographics in Hai Duong province take place at a speed that is much quicker than the world average rate or many other Asian.
Old age problem
The number of persons aged 60 years or older in Hai Duong province is estimated to be 600.000 in 2010. This number is projected to grow to nearly 800.000 by 2050, at which time it will be as large as the population of children (0-14 years). This historic crossover of an increasing share of older persons and a declining share of children will mark the first time that the number of children and older persons are the same.
There are many ethnic groups of which the Kinh (the majority of Vietnamese) make up 90% of the population. Major religions helping fulfil the spiritual needs of the Vietnamese include Buddhism, Catholic and Protestant churches, Confucianism, Cao Dai and Hoa Hao faiths. With that being said, ancestor worship is probably their predominant “religion” although they may not realize it.
Hai Duong is located in the Red River Delta where originated from the civilization of Red River. Hai Duong has had many changes in names throughout history.It was a part of Duong Tuyen (in the period of King Hung), Giao Chi and Giao Chau ( in the 1st Millennium); Nam Sach Lo, Hong Lo (under period of Ly and Tran dynasty); Hong Chau, Nam Sach (in the 16th century); Thua Tuyen, *Hai Duong (in the 10th year of Quang Thuan King).
Hai Duong province was established in 1831 and was first called “Thanh Dong” (East Province) which mean “the city to the east of Thang Long citadel”.
The patriotic movement was expanded in Hai Duong in the early 20th century.
During the 1930s, Hai Duong people carried out two resistance wars against French imperial and American Emperor and then won victories.
In 1968, Hai Duong was merged to Hung Yen to become Hai Hung province.
January 1997, Hai Hung was separated into Hai Duong and Hung Yen.
August 1997, The Government decided to upgrade Hai Duong from town to city. Since 1997, Hai Duong has had 11 districts and a city.
Nowadays, Hai Duong is among the most industrialized and developed provinces in Vietnam. It is also one of the country’s three most foreign investment attracting provinces (along with Ho Chi Minh City and Binh Duong).
Hai Duong province is in the centre of the North Delta. Which has good conditions in transportation, Agriculture, industrial production; Hai Duong province has an important role in the social economic development of the country. Its natural land area and sources are favourable conditions for developing the economy. The number of over 800.000 of 1.7 million people at the working. In which over 500.000 are in the agriculture industry. This is an advantage for the social economic developing of Hai Duong.
In recent years, Hai Duong has pushed up developing agriculture and industrial production. Hai Duong called domestic and international investors in over 50 industrial areas in the whole province. There are foreign business partners came from Britain, Germany, France, Hong Kong etc. Besides Hai Duong develop agriculture in the direction of economic and industrialization and modernization.
In recent years, agriculture in Hai Duong develops quickly and steadily.
According to latest statistics of Haiduong Statistical Yearbook 2008, Hai Duong has area 1,651.8 km². The population of the whole province is 1,732,814 persons. Population density is 1,049 per/km². Average population in 2007 by sex and by region:
By sex: Male: 842,002 persons, Female: 890,812 persons
By region: Urban: 279,850 persons, Rural: 1,452,964 persons
The rate of population growth (percentage):
Whole province: 9.60%
Number of people at working age: 1,094,272 persons
Hai Duong has one city (Hai Duong), one town (Chí Linh) and ten districts:
– Bình Giang
– Cam Giàng
– Gia Loc
– Kim Thành
– Kinh Mon
– Nam Sách
– Ninh Giang
– Thanh Hà
– Thanh Mien
– Tu Kỳ
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