Tuyen Quang province, Northern Vietnam
Capital: Tuyên Quang
Area: 5,870.4 km2 (2,266.6 sq mi)
Population: about 800,000
Density: 130/km2 (330/sq mi)
Demographics: Vietnamese, Tày, Dao, Sán Chay
Calling code: 27
Tuyên Quang is a province of Vietnam, in the northeastern part of the country. It’s in the northwest of Hanoi, at the centre of Lô River valley and a tributary of the Red River. The delta formation in the province is the Tonkin Delta. Its capital is Tuyên Quang township. Tuyen Quang province had a population of 746,900 in 2008, with a density of 127 persons per sqkm over a total land area of 5,870.4 square kilometres (2,266.6 sq mi).
Tuyen Quang province borders Hà Giang to the north, Cao Bang to the northeast, Bac Kan and Thái Nguyên to the east, Vinh Phúc to the south, Phú Tho to the southwest, and Yên Bái to the west.
Tuyên Quang, the capital city of the Tuyen Quang province has a rich history of the battles fought in the region. The earliest history is to the First Indochina War when it served as a garrison. During this war the Viet Minh made the Legionnaires surrender at the memorial to the Battle of Tuyên Quang. Another historical event is the Siege of Tuyên Quang, commemorated in the first verse of Le Boudin, its principal marching song. The French garrison posted at Tuyên Quang defended the town for four months against 12,000 troops of the Yunnan army and the Black Flag army. Two companies of the French Foreign Legion were involved during the Sino-French War (august 1884 to april 1885).
Tuyen Quang province had once group of people living – Thai people. However, from the 13th century onwards merged into the Tran Dynasty, got the name as Quoc Oai before naming it Châu Tuyên Quang. Under the rule of Emperor Tran Hien Tông (reigned 1329-1341), Tuyên Quang got the status of a tran, before becoming a thành phu when the Ming Dynasty of China briefly annexed Vietnam at the start of the 15th century. After Lê Loi expelled the Chinese and started the Lê Dynasty, he made Tuyên Hóa a part of Tây Đao.
During the reign of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông, Tuyen Quang province comprised one phu and five districts (huyen) and became the province of Minh Quang under the rule of Emperor Lê Uy Muc. During the reign of Lê Trang Tông, Minh Quang became an Tai, and control of the region was given to the Vu family, ethnic Thai people.
By the end of 17th century, the Lê Dynasty sent ethnic Vietnamese officials to the area to supervise the Thais. After Gia Long started the Nguyen Dynasty, he changed the region to the tran of Tuyên Quang, and it became a province under the rule of his successor Emperor Minh Mang. When the French carried out their colonial conquest, the phu of Yên Bình was at the forefront of the resistance movement. People from the Thái, Muong, Mèo, Tho, Nùng and another ethnic groups engaged the French in many battles in the area in 1884-85. The Black Flags were also prominent. It was not until 1894 that the French had pacified the region. Prior to 1975, the province comprised the districts of Yên Son, Yên Bình, Hàm Yên, Son Duong, Chiêm Hóa and Đai Thi.
Tuyen Quang province has widely varying topography covering high mountains deep valleys. The dominant elevation of the province is in the range 200-600 metres (660-2,000 ft). The province is in the foothills of the Northern Highlands, which forms a broad crescent around the Tonkin Delta. Its southern part has narrow river basins and mountain ranges (elevation below 300 metres (980 ft)) and the northern part, particularly in Chiêm Hoá and Nà Hang districts the slopes are steep with hills taller than 1,400 metres (4,600 ft) (the highest mountain is Cham Chu at 1,589 metres – 5,213 ft). The Tam Dao range is mainly in this province.
In the southern part of the province, about 100 kilometres (62 mi) away from Hanoi as the crow flies, is the provincial capital, Tuyên Quang has an elevation below 100 metres (330 ft) located on the right bank of the Lô River, a tributary of the Red River which rises at Hà Giang, near the Chinese border. Its major tributary is the Gâm River on its left bank. The province has a land area 5,900 square kilometres (2,300 sq mi). The province’s territory has only 7.2% of natural forest comprising both rain forest and monsoon forest.
The tropical climatic seasons are the monsoon and dry season. Rainfall occurs generally during the monsoon months of May to October, which is also the summer season. However, it is unevenly distributed due to varying topography. The average annual rainfall in the province is 1,500 millimetres (59 in) in 150 rainy days. Monsoon rainfall accounts for about 94% while the balance occurs during the dry months, which is the winter period. Depending on the season, the wind direction also varies significantly.
Thunderstorms from April to August are also a climatic feature with maximum recorded rainfall of 100 millimetres (3.9 in) during one thunderstorm in some areas. Cyclonic effects with wind speed reaching 40 metres (130 ft)/s have been recorded in some areas. Cyclones occur every year during the transitional months between two seasons in April and May. Other weather features noted are Mist and the hoarfrost; mist occurs at the beginning of the winter months; recorded for 25 to 55 days in the south and 60 to 80 days in the North. Hoarfrost occurs once every 2 years on average in January or November and for just one day.
The temperate to subtropical, tropical climate facilitates growth of natural flora and a diversified plant mechanism. The northern region of the province experiences a long winter with low temperatures. However, the region gets more rain during summer. The southern region has a diversified climate with a short winter and hot summer followed by a monsoonal season. Frequently, the strong intensity rainstorms result in floods, which occasionally cause damage to people and property. The average temperature in the province is 22.4°C (72.3°F).
Tuyên Quang has one town municipality (thi xã) Tuyên Quang and 6 rural districts (huyen): Chiêm Hoá District, Hàm Yên District, Lâm Bình District, Na Hang District, Son Duong District and Yên Son District, seven precincts, five towns under districts and 129 communes.
according to the General Statistics Office of the Government of Vietnam, the population of Tuyên Quang province as of 2008 was 746,900 with a density of 127 persons per square kilometre over a total land area of 5,870.4 square kilometres (2,266.6 sq mi) of the province. The male population during this period was 369,100 with females accounting for 377,800. The rural population was 676,200 against an urban population of 70,700.
Economy And Development
The province’s economy is dependent on its primary industries. In 2005, the economic breakdown is as follows: construction 30.7%, services 33.6%, agriculture, forestry and fishery 35.7%. Rice is the staple food. also grown are maize, cassava, potato, tea, lemon grass and citrus fruits, as well as beans. Livestock includes buffalo, pigs and poultry. The most important mineral reserves are zinc ore, manganese ore, tin and antimony. The province is also a producer of paper, cement and limestone.
The land economy is dependent on the agricultural growth in the province, which is dependent to a land area of 1,051 square kilometres (406 sq mi)) under agriculture, about 20% of the province. However, this has also caused deforestation. However, the practice of shifting cultivation called the “swidden agriculture”(practised by ethnic minorities) is limited to 3000 ha, as in 1992, and is said to be reducing under a UNDP funded project; has covered the aquaculture development in ponds. However, the Lô River which flows through the province has much potential for development of aquaculture.
The province has 900 villages in upland areas, which are inhabited mostly by impoverished ethnic minorities. Under an IFaD funded project for Rural Development (IFaD loan:US$ 20.9 million), agricultural training has been provided to the farmers on pilot plots to teach them to adopt new practices and techniques in the field of agriculture, animal husbandry, credit, food storage and processing that are appropriate for the local environment. In addition, infrastructure, health services and village level institutions like the savings and credit groups, user groups and village development boards have also been supported by this funding.
The forestry sector of the economy is influenced by the Bai Bang pulp and paper mill, said to be one of the largest in Vietnam, located in the adjoining Vinh Phu Province. It was established in the 1980s with financial help from Sweden. Commercial logging is carried out in the plantation forests by the state-sponsored enterprises to supply pulp to the factory.
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