Hai Phong City, Northern Vietnam
Region: Northern Coast
Capital: Hai Phong
Area: 1,507.57 km² (582.08 sq mi)
Population: About 2 million
Demographics: Vietnamese, Hoa
Calling code: 31
Hai Phong is the third largest city and one of the most important port cities in Vietnam. With the advantage of having a deep-water port, maritime transport is very developed in Hai Phong city. The city’s name means “coastal defence”. Hai Phong is also called “The City of the Red Flamboyant” because of the many flamboyant trees planted in the city.
Hai Phong was originally founded by Lê Chân, the female general of a Vietnamese revolution against the Chinese led by the Trung Sisters (Hai Bà Trung) in the year 43 C.E. The area which is now known as Duong Kinh District was once known as Hai tan Phong thu (“defensive coastal area”), and served as the second capital of the Mac dynasty (1527–1592). At the end of Nguyen Emperor Tu Duc’s reign, the headquarters of An Duong District was also moved to Hang Kenh Communal House, which now belongs to Le Chan district.
In 1881, the city was the site of a devastating typhoon which claimed up to 300,000 lives.
Hai Phong was one of Vietnam’s major ports and trading centres. When the country was invaded by the French, the city became France’s main naval base in Indochina. After World War II, when Vietnam attempted to regain its independence, Hai Phong was the site of the first military action undertaken by the French, as punishment for the death of three French soldiers. Some sources claim that the French heavy cruiser Suffren bombarded the city, while others claim it was not Suffren but 3 avisos or sloops, supported by Suffren, the ships that bombarded the city and adjacent fields in an action that contributed to the start of the First Indochina War.
French infantry forces under the command of Jean-Étienne Valluy invaded the city. They fought house to house with support from armoured units and jet fighters.
Late in the Vietnam War, Haiphong was subjected to heavy bombing by US Navy and Air Force strike aircraft because it was North Vietnam’s only major port. U.S. Admiral Thomas H. Moorer planned the mining of Haiphong harbour which took place on 8 May 1972 and which he claimed never caused a single casualty. The city, however, was completely unaffected by the war due to the establishment of a prohibition zone surrounding it. After the war, the city recovered and became a significant industrial centre.
Haiphong is the third most populous city in Vietnam. It has an area of 1,507.57 km² and a population of 1,884,685 for the metropolitan and 769,739 for urban districts according to the 2009 census. 50.4% of Haiphong’s population is female.
As of the 2009 census, Haiphong’s average annual population growth rate was given as 4.0%. Haiphong’s crude birth rate was recorded at 18.1 live births per 1000 persons; the crude death rate was measured at 7.6 per 1000 persons. Life expectancy at birth was estimated at 77.1 years for women and 72.0 years for men, or 74.5 years overall. The infant mortality rate was measured at 11.8 infant deaths per 1000 live births, just over two points above the nation’s average for urban areas. In the same census, the city’s immigration and emigration rates were measured at 2.8% and 1.9%, respectively, for a net migration rate of 0.9%.
Haiphong is a coastal city located at the mouth of the Cam River, in Vietnam’s northeastern coastal area, 120 km east of Hanoi. The Binh Bridge crosses the Cam and connects the city with Thuy Nguyen District. It has a total natural area of 152,318.49ha (2001). It borders Quang Ninh province to the north, Hai Duong province to the west, Thai Binh province to the south, and the Gulf of Tonkin to the east. Bach Long Vi island, located in the Gulf, is also administered as part of the city. The city is located in a convenient position for transportation to domestic provinces, and international networks via road network, railway, sea routes, inland waterway and air.
Haiphong features a humid subtropical climate, with hot, humid summers and warm, dry winters. The city is noticeably wetter from April through October. In fact about roughly 90% of the city’s annual precipitation (which is approximately 1600 mm of rainfall) typically falls during these months. There is a noticeable difference in temperatures between the city’s winters and summers. Haiphong’s coolest months, January and February, sees average high temperatures reach 20 degrees Celsius and average low temperatures at around 14 degrees Celsius. Its warmest months, June and July, sees average high temperatures hover around 33 degrees Celsius and average low temperatures at around 26 degrees Celsius. Sea temperatures range from a low of 21 °C (70 °F) in February to a high of 30 °C (86 °F) during the months of July and August.
– An Duong
– An Lao
– Bach Long Vy
– Cát Hai
– Đo Son
– Duong Kinh
– Hai An
– Hồng Bàng
– Kien An
– Kien Thuy
– Lê Chân
– Ngô Quyen
– Thuy Nguyên
– Tiên Lang
– Vinh Bao
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