Da Nang City, Central Coast Vietnam
Area: 1,256 km² (485 sq mi)
Population: About 900,000
Density: 599/km² (1,550/sq mi)
Ethnicities: Vietnamese, Chinese, Co-tu, Tay
Area phone code: 511
Da Nang City is one of the major port cities in Vietnam (in addition to Ho Chi Minh city and Hai Phong) and the biggest city on the South Central Coast of Vietnam. The city is on the coast of the East Sea, at the mouth of the Hàn River. Da Nang is the commercial and educational centre of Central Vietnam, with a well-sheltered, easily accessible port.
In fact, its location on the path of National Route 1A and the North-South Railway makes it a hub for transportation. Da Nang is within 100 km of several UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the Imperial City of Hue, the Old Town of Hoi An, and the My Son ruins. The city was previously known as Cua Hàn during early Ðai Viet settlement, and as Tourane (or Turon) during French colonial rule. It is the fourth biggest economic centre in Vietnam (after Ho Chi Minh city, Ha Noi, and Hai Phong).
Before 1997, Da Nang City was part of Quang Nam-Da Nang Province. On 1 January 1997, Da Nang was separated from Quang Nam province to become one of five independent (centrally controlled) municipalities in Vietnam. Da Nang is listed as a first class city and has a higher urbanization ratio than any of Vietnam’s other provinces or centrally governed cities. In terms of urban population, Da Nang is the 4th largest city in Vietnam.
The city’s origins date back to the ancient Champa Kingdom, established in 192 AD. At its peak, the Chams’ sphere of influence stretched from Hue to Vung Tàu. The city of Indrapura, at the site of the modern village of Dong Duong in Quang Nam province (about 50 km (31 mi) from Da Nang), was the capital of Champa from about 875 to about 1000 AD. Also in the region of Da Nang were the ancient Cham city of Singhapura (“City of the Lion”), the location of which has been identified with an archeological site in the modern village of Trà Kieu, and the valley of My Son, where a number of ruined temples and towers can still be viewed.
In the latter half of the 10th century, the kings of Indrapura came into conflict with the Dai Viet, who were then based at Hoa Lu near modern Hanoi. In 982, three ambassadors sent to Champa by King Lê Hoàn of the Dai Viet (founder of the Early Lê Dynasty) were detained in Indrapura. Lê Hoàn decided to go on the offensive, sacking Indrapura and killing the Cham King Parameshvaravarman I. As a result of these setbacks, the Cham eventually abandoned Indrapura around 1000 AD.
The Dai Viet campaign against Champa continued into the late 11th century when the Cham were forced to cede their three northern provinces to the rulers of the Lý Dynasty. Soon afterwards, Vietnamese peasants began moving into the untilled former Cham lands, turning them into rice fields and moving relentlessly southward, delta by delta, along with the narrow coastal plain. The southward expansion of Dai Viet (known as Nam Tien) continued for several centuries, culminating in the annexation of most of the Cham territories by the end of the 15th century.
Da Nang cityscape
Da Nang City is the largest city in central Vietnam and one of the country’s most important ports. Ringed by mountains on one side and the South China Sea on the other, Da Nang borders Thua Thiên-Hue Province across the Hai Vân Pass to the north, Quang Nam Province to the south and west, and the ocean to the east. It is 759 km (472 mi) south of Hanoi, and 960 km (600 mi) north of Ho Chí Minh City.
Geology and topography
Geologically, Da Nang City is at the edge of a Paleozoic fold belt or Vietnamese called it the Truong Son Orogenic Zone. In reality, the main deformation occurred during the early Carboniferous period. Da Nang’s topography is dominated by the steep Annamite mountain range to the north and northwest, featuring peaks ranging from 700 to 1,500 metres (2,300 to 4,900 ft) in height, and low-lying coastal plains with some salting to the south and east, with several white sand beaches along the coast.
Da Nang has a tropical monsoon climate with two seasons: a typhoon & wet season lasting from September through March and a dry season lasting from April through August. Temperatures are typically high, with an annual average of 25.9 °C (78.6 °F). Temperatures are highest between June and August (averaging 33 to 34 °C (91 to 93 °F), and lowest between December and February (averaging 18 to 19 °C (64 to 66 °F)). Cold, wet and windy in winter, bringing even lower temperatures in December and January. The annual average for humidity is 80.6%, with highs between October and December (reaching 84%) and lows between June and July (reaching 74–75%).
On average, Da Nang receives 2,505 mm (98.6 in) of rainfall. Rainfall is typically highest between October and November (ranging from 550 to 1,000 mm (22 to 39 in)) and lowest between January and April (ranging from 23 to 40 mm (0.91 to 1.6 in)). Da Nang receives an average of 2156 hours of sunlight annually, with highs between 234 and 277 hours per month in May and June and lows between 69 and 165 hours per month in November and December.
Da Nang City is the fifth largest city in Vietnam, with an area of 1,255.53 km² and a population of 951,700 as of 2011. Women make up 50.7% of Da Nang’s population.
Da Nang’s population has been growing at rates of between 2.5% and 3% during most of the years between 2005 and 2011, significantly exceeding the national average of 1% to 1.2%. The growth rate briefly rose to 3.6% in 2010 before returning to its long-term trend with 2.68% in 2011. This is the third fastest growth rate in the country after the two southern manufacturing centres Binh Duong province (4.41%) and Dong Nai province (3.5%). Da Nang’s population is estimated to reach one million inhabitants by 2014.
Migration has been the dominant factor in the city’s population growth at least since 2009, contributing 1.6% to 2.7% (2010) between 2009 and 2011. Out-migration has been relatively high in 2011 at 0.79% compared to 0.34% and 0.55% in previous years, while the in-migration rate has been exceeding 2% since 2009 and was at 2.28% in 2011.
Da Nang’s natural population growth is only slightly higher than the national average. Its crude birth rate was recorded at 18 live births per 1000 persons; the crude death rate was measured at 6.7 per 1000 persons in 2011. Life expectancy at birth was estimated at 77.4 years for women and 72.4 years for men, or 74.8 years overall in the 2009 population census. The infant mortality rate was measured at 9.9 infant deaths per 1000 live births, less than two points above the nation’s average for urban areas.
The city has the highest urbanization ratio among provinces and municipalities in Vietnam, containing only 11 rural communes, the fewest of any province-level unit in Vietnam. As of 2009, 86.9% of Da Nang’s population lived in urban areas; average annual urban population growth was 3.5%.
Da Nang City has seven mainland districts and one island district: Cam Le, Hoi Châu, Hòa Vang, Liên Chieu, Ngu Hành Son, Son Trà, Thanh Khê, and Hoàng Sa (Paracel Islands). Before 1997, the city was part of Quang Nam-Da Nang province. On 1 January 1997, Da Nang broke from Quang Nam Province to become one of five independent municipalities in Vietnam.
District Subdivisions Area Population
– Cam Le: 6 wards
– Hoi Châu: 13 wards
– Hòa Vang: 14 communes, 1 township
– Liên Chieu: 5 wards
– Ngu Hành Son: 4 wards
– Son Trà: 7 wards
– Thanh Khê: 10 wards
– Hoàng Sa
Total 45 wards, 14 communes, 1 township
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